Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional position of points and the distances and angles between them. A land surveying professional is called a land surveyor. These points are usually on the surface of the Earth, and they are often used to establish land maps and boundaries for ownership, locations like building corners or the surface location of subsurface features, or other purposes required by government or civil law, such as property sales.
THE EARLY DAYS OF SURVEYING. The Egyptians first used it to accurately divide land into plots for the purpose of taxation in 2700 BC and use Groma or gruma was a Roman surveying instrument. The groma surveying instrument may have originated from Mesopotamia, and may have been imported by the Greeks in the 4th century BC. Subsequently, it was brought to Rome by the Etruscans and named cranema or ferramentum Greeks also developed the science of geometry and were using it for precise land division. Greeks also developed the first piece of surveying equipment (Diopter).
The main surveying instruments in use around the world are the theodolite, measuring tape, total station, 3D scanners, GPS/GNSS, level and rod. Most instruments screw onto a tripod when in use. Tape measures are often used for measurement of smaller distances.